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OBJECTIVE: To verify the prevalence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders according to the demographic and socioeconomic profile, type of drug used and the health conditions of users of crack, alcohol and other drugs. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional study, with a sample of 505 users. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire was used to verify the prevalence of disorders. RESULTS: The prevalence found was 28.7%, higher among crack users, women, blacks, divorcees or widowers, unemployed, users with health problems, poor self-assessment of health and who are dissatisfied with family relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders may be related to some factors that include not only individual characteristics, but also social, cultural and economic issues, among others.
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OBJETIVO: verificar la prevalencia de Trastornos Psiquiátricos Menores de acuerdo con el perfil demográfico y socioeconómico, con el tipo de droga utilizada y con las condiciones de salud de los usuarios de crack, alcohol, y otras drogas. METODOLOGÍA: estudio transversal, con amuestra de 505 usuarios. Se utilizó el Self-Reporting Questionnaire para verificación de prevalencia de los trastornos. RESULTADOS: la prevalencia encontrada fue de 28,7%, siendo superior entre usuarios de crack, mujeres, negros, divorciados o viudos, desempleados, entrevistados con problemas de salud, mala autoevaluación de salud, y que están insatisfechos con relacionamientos familiares. CONCLUSIÓN: constatado que la presencia de los trastornos psiquiátricos menores puede estar relacionada con algunos factores que incluyen no solamente las características individuales, pero también cuestiones sociales, culturales, económicas, entre otras.
Thus, this study aimed to verify the prevalence of Minor Psychiatric Disorders according to the demographic and socioeconomic profile, the type of psychoactive substance used and the health conditions of users of crack, alcohol and other drugs in the city of Pelotas-RS.
The research was developed in a city in the interior of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that has two distinct services aimed at the psychosocial care of people who use crack, alcohol and other drugs. The prevalence of drug users was unknown (p = 0.50), a sampling error of 4% (d = 0.04) was admitted, under a 95% confidence level (α = 0.05), and the number of participants in each stratum was proportional to the total number of registered users. The final sample consisted of 505 users. The systematic selection of respondents was the direct random draw in the databases of the two services.
Of the 505 interviewed users, drug users (except crack) were the predominant group, with 369 respondents (73.1%), and those who reported using crack were 136 users (26.9%). However, Figure 1 shows that the SRQ score was higher among crack users. In both groups, females showed a greater dispersion and higher concentration of values above the median value of the sample (md = 3, mean = 4.1 and standard deviation = 3.7). Males presented lower median value of SRQ scores in both groups.
In relation to the types of PAS that has been used at least once in life by the users, the most frequently mentioned were alcohol (96.1%), tobacco (81.4%), marijuana (52.4%), cocaine (40.2%) and crack (26.7%). Table 3 shows the SRQ score distribution according to these substances.
When we verified the association between the drugs used and the SRQ score, it was observed that users who reported having used crack at least once in their life had a prevalence of PMD nearly twice higher than the study population (28.7% vs. 43%), followed by cocaine users (28.7% vs 37.7%). Participants who reported having used these two types of PAS had statistically significant proportional differences regarding SRQ score (p
The present study revealed that the prevalence of MPD in the users of PAS was 28.7%, a result that is lower than that observed in a study conducted with PAS users in the state of Goiás (37.3%)(15). However, when considering only those participants users who reported having used crack at least once in life, they had a higher propensity to develop MPD than the other PAS users. This result is in agreement with the literature when it points out that crack users present a higher occurrence of depressive and anxious symptoms than users of other substances(17).
8. Kluwe-Schiavon B, Tractenberg SG, Sanvicente-Vieira B, Rosa CSO, Arteche AX, Pezzi JC, et al. Propriedades psicométricas da Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment (CSSA) em mulheres usuárias de crack. J Bras Psiquiatr. 2015; 64(2):115-21. [ Links ]